Soil is not a renewable resource. All life begins and ends from the soil. It’s the source of food, medicine and filters our water, among others. Soil is also referred to as the “skin of the earth.” It contributes to the growth of plants and crops. It is capable of supporting all forms of life on the planet, including plants, animals, and humans, demonstrating the importance of soil. Most of us take soil for granted and assume it will always be around. But that’s far from the truth. It takes more than 1,000 years to grow 0, 4 inches of soil.
In 2002, the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) passed a resolution proposing that 5 December be designated as World Soil Day to recognize the importance of soil as a critical component of the natural system and a vital contributor to human well-being. The date of 5 December was chosen because it coincides with the official birthday of the late H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej, King of Thailand, who was one of the initiative’s main proponents. In June 2013, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Conference unanimously endorsed World Soil Day and requested official adoption at the 68th UN General Assembly. The World Soil Day was established by the 68th UN General Assembly in December 2013.
Bangladesh has always been concerned about soil because it is an “agricultural country.” Bangladesh’s soils illustrate enormous variety despite the fact that it is a small nation. Soil, which is made up of minerals, water, air, and organic matter, serves as a primary source of nutrients for plant and animal life and serves as a foundation for feed, fuel, fiber, and medical products, as well as many critical ecosystem services. It provides a lot to our environment as a stronghold for plants roots and the nutrients they need to grow; it filters rainwater and regulates the discharge of excess rainwater, preventing flooding; it can store large amounts of organic carbon; and it acts as a buffer against pollutants, protecting groundwater. Goal 2 of the SDGs is to eliminate hunger, achieve food security, improve nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture. By 2030, SDG targets include ensuring access to safe, nutritious, and sufficient food for all people, particularly the poor and people in vulnerable situations; increasing the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, particularly women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists, and fishermen, through secure and equal access to land and other productive resources and markets; ensuring sustainable food production systems and implementing resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, aid in the preservation of ecosystems, strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, and other disasters; and gradually improve land and soil quality.
The issue of soil pollution in Bangladesh is complex. Soil pollution has become a real problem that impact on the environment and, as a result, the health of humans, animals, and plants. Polluted soil contains an abnormal concentration of chemical compounds that are potentially harmful to living things. It includes all forms of pollution that affect any type of soil, including agricultural, forestry, and urban soils. At present, soil pollution in our country is a great threat to biological resources and ecosystems. There are different types of land pollution like agricultural land pollution, chemicals and solid waste. As land pollution and soil erosion progress, animals are forced to shift habitats and adapt to new conditions. As a result, some of our native species are at risk of extinction. Pollutions of air, land, and water do interact with one another. As land pollution frequently contributes to water pollution because polluted sites’ nutrients and substances seep into groundwater or run off into lakes and rivers before reaching the oceans. Anthropogenic activities are the main causes of land pollution through activities like agriculture work, deforestation, unplanned urbanization, mining, improper industrial waste management and waste disposal ways.
Land degradation, erosion of valuable topsoil, creeping salinity, over-extraction of ground water, indiscriminate land conversion, declining soil fertility, water logging, and forest destruction are all contributing to our biodiversity loss. To reduce land degradation Bangladesh has taken a national framework. One of the national commitment to achieve Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) by 2030, the following preliminary LDN targets have been defined for Bangladesh: to improve soil fertility and Carbon status in 2000 km2 of the cropland area; to reduce land use/ cover conversion in 600 km2 of forest area; to reduce waterlogging in 600 km2 area; to reduce soil erosion in hilly areas in 600 km2 area; to protect non-saline land areas from salinity intrusion in 1200 km2 in the coastal zone area and to reduce riverbank erosion @100ha/year covering 100 km2 areas. These targets were based on three biophysical indicators-Land Cover Changes (LCC), Land Productivity Dynamics (LPD) and Soil Organic Carbon (SOC). The Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) provides the scientific framework to prevent, reduce, and restore land degradation and to achieve a balance between the loss and gain of the nation’s natural resource capitals.
Every single day our lives are supported by the soil. By giving nutrients and water, it helps the plants. By giving a habitat and food, it helps animals. It benefits people by providing them with food, shelter, and other useful things. In other words, soil benefits every living thing on Earth, whether it be directly or indirectly. Because of this, it is morally required to protect the soil. The UNDP’s 1995 Report on Human Development in Bangladesh Environment noted that the demands of a growing population, along with related demands for industry and agriculture, appear to be consuming natural resources at an alarming speed without replenishment. It is important to make sure our soil has everything it needs to function properly.