Bangladesh has enormous potential in the renewable energy industry for electricity generation. It has set an ambitious goal of generating more than 4,100 megawatts of electricity from renewable energy sources by 2030, in an effort to substantially cut greenhouse gas emissions by the outlined plan updated Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) which was submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ahead of COP26. At COP 21 in Paris, on 12th December 2015, Bangladesh took a significant step towards implementing a landmark agreement to combat climate change and accelerate and intensify the actions and investments needed for a sustainable low-carbon future. This agreement will combat climate change and accelerate and intensify the actions and investments needed for a low carbon future.
The agreement builds on the Convention and – for the first time – brings all nations together in a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its impacts, with enhanced support to help developing countries do so. As such, it charts a new route for global climate efforts. The central goal of the Paris Agreement is to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change and to keep the global temperature increase below 2°C above pre-industrial levels this century and to continue efforts to limit temperature increase to a further 1.5°C. In addition, the agreement aims to increase the capacity of countries to deal with the impacts of climate change and finance flows consistent with lower GHG emissions and climate-resilient pathways.
The Paris Agreement requires all parties to continue their best efforts through “Nationally Determined Contributions” (NDCs) and strengthen these efforts in the coming years. Bangladesh is one of the nations that is most susceptible to the effects of climate change, which poses a serious threat to the nation’s ability to prosper economically. The economy of Bangladesh is more vulnerable to climate change than that of any other nation, per the 2015 Climate Change Vulnerability Index. As a result, Bangladesh is implementing a two-pronged plan to combat the effects of climate change. Increasing resistance to the effects of climate change is the fundamental objective of Bangladesh’s initiatives. The nation is simultaneously attempting to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and foster more resilient development. The Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP), a comprehensive document on climate change that is currently being updated, was created by the government of Bangladesh for adaptation and Low Carbon Development (LCD). Green growth was incorporated in the Seventh Five Year Plan, which also articulated three themes, one of which being climate change management and resilience. In light of this, Bangladesh has created this Implementation Roadmap for the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) in order to manage rising emissions without compromising necessary development and to enable Bangladesh to participate in global efforts to keep temperature increases to two degrees, ideally 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial levels. Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) are the foundation of the Paris Agreement, which was signed in December 2015. They outline each nation’s strategy for transforming its economy to one that is low in carbon emissions and resilient to climate change, as well as how this will be organized, run, monitored, and funded. Before the Paris Climate Conference, nations submitted their project; Bangladesh submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the UNFCCC in September 2015. The Paris Agreement should now be ratified, and nations should also put their NDCs into action.
The NDC for Bangladesh outlines the country’s strategies for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and preparing for inevitable climate change. This acknowledges two crucial elements, on the one hand, as a climate vulnerable country, adaptation remains the priority for Bangladesh. Bangladesh’s NDC therefore has an adaptation component that describes what Bangladesh has already done on adaptation and what the priorities are going forward. On the other hand, Bangladesh is committed to taking a progressive approach to developing its economy on a low carbon pathway. In the NDC, Bangladesh committed to reduce GHG emissions in the power, industry and transport sectors by 5% below ‘business-as-usual’ GHG emissions by 2030 using only domestic resources, or by 15% below ‘business-as-usual’ GHG emissions by 2030 if sufficient and appropriate support is received from developed countries. The focus has now shifted to implementation under the Paris Agreement. It is important to note that the Paris Agreement states that ‘least developed countries may prepare and communicate strategies, plans and actions for the development of low greenhouse gas emissions reflecting their particular circumstances’. As a progressive member of the UNFCCC, Bangladesh was one of the first countries to establish a mechanism to formulate plans for the implementation of NDCs after the Paris Agreement. Bangladesh reserves the right to change its position regarding the implementation of its NDC in the future.
The updated NDC provides more details on Bangladesh’s role in addressing rising emissions and in global efforts to combat climate change. The NDC calls for a number of mitigation actions that will help reduce the country’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and move towards a low-carbon, climate-resilient middle-income economy, and ensure that Bangladesh’s emissions do not exceed greenhouse gas emission standard.
Bangladesh has significantly advanced from the Paris Agreement. Bangladesh won’t be as reliant on coal as other Asian nations are. Nevertheless, if long-term predictions and Bangladesh’s goals for renewable energy are met, coal’s contribution to the nation’s energy mix will be minimal by 2050. Renewable energy has been a gift from nature to Bangladesh. where it is practically free to use renewable energy to further enhance the nation’s power system. According to the accord, if the nation has its own energy, its economy will grow more quickly and help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.