Global Climate Risk Index 2021 of German Watch Report ranked Bangladesh the 7th most affected vulnerable country by extreme weather event during 2000-2019. Between 1900 and 2020, a total 352 incidents occurred in Bangladesh. Around 450 million people were affected by the disasters. It is one of the most affected countries due to disasters within the SAARC region. In 2020 a total of 5.4 million people were affected by monsoon floods which was the 4th worst disasters in the world. It is also imperative that between 1996 and 2015, disaster caused an averaging 0.732% of GDP loss per annum and total economic loss was $2.283 billion. It indicates to the severity of disasters in Bangladesh compared to rest of the Region. Thus, to successfully achieve Sustainable Development Goals, the aspect of Disaster Risk Resilience must be taken into account.
Natural disaster has an adverse effect on living being and make their life difficult. One of the top five nations in terms of economic vulnerability to the effects of climate change is Bangladesh. It risks not only life but damages properties. Bangladesh Disaster related Statistics report that cyclone, erosion, and floods combined caused 85.6% of all losses and damages between 2015 and 2020. According to the US Government agency the worst years on record for natural catastrophes were 2020 and 2021. 20 weather-related catastrophes cost more than $1 billion in losses each in 2021. With 22 confirmed billion-dollar weather incidents, 2020 was the most expensive year in recorded history for natural catastrophes. In such natural disasters, women and children who are impoverished and vulnerable suffer the most. Additionally, the neighborhood next to the seaside suffers from floods, cyclones, etc. Because of haphazard infrastructure construction and inadequate drainage systems, the urban population frequently experiences water logging and earthquake-related consequences. Some of the remarkable disasters of recent years are landslide in Chittagong Hill Tract, flood in Sierra Leone, Typhoon in China, wildfires in California, Chile and Portugal in the South Asia part.
Disaster is a part of our life and is inevitable. It cannot be removed but the risk can be reduced by proper disaster management. The world bank has offered a repayable loan worth $250 million for tackling natural disasters. UNESCO is actively working to promote risk awareness, prevention, and preparation as well as to improve society by promoting learning and capacity building. Setting specific goals for reducing catastrophe risk was a challenge that the World Conference on Disaster Reduction accepted. ILO aims to reduce the disaster risk on the employment and income by effective post disaster recovery efforts for example urgent medical help, emergency relief, rehabilitation etc. Tree is a great alternative in order to protect the environment and livelihood from disasters as they work as barriers. So the policy makers have to be mindful in this regard to reduce the loss.
In order for social and economic growth to be sustainable for the long term, disaster risk reduction must be a key component. Among others, SDG No. 4’s targets for promoting education for sustainable development, such as constructing and improving educational facilities and guaranteeing healthy lives, as well as SDG No. 11’s targets for cities and SDG No. 9’s targets for building resilient infrastructure, reaffirm the connection between disaster risk reduction and sustainable development. As the climate change is inducing disaster risk and can be reduced by implementing the SDG No. 13 in reality. Previously, the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in 2015 established the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. Additionally, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development recognizes and reaffirms the urgent need to reduce the risk of disasters by information access to public. The relationship between SDG No. 5 and disaster risk is crucial since women experience a variety of disaster-related situations. If this aim is properly carried out, it will sustain our common environment for present and future generations.
According to the severity of disasters, the nation is divided into six climatic and disaster hotspots in the 100-year Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100. 80 projects have been suggested for the delta plan’s initial phase. A total of 35% of the investment has been designated for flood control, riverbank maintenance, erosion prevention, enhanced water storage capacity, and improved navigability. In accordance with the Delta Plan, Eighth-Five Year, and SDG, Bangladesh has produced a National Disaster Management Plan for the years 2021-2025 that aims to increase investment via programs for disaster risk reduction, adaptation, and post disaster rehabilitation. The nation has created Disaster Impact Assessment (DIA) methods to guarantee that project formulation and risk-informed development planning are done in order to address the risk and vulnerability associated with climate change.
People need to be aware of the possible effects of climate change and natural disasters since they pose a threat to our environment. Every year, river erosion costs Bangladesh $250 million in lost revenue. It frequently occurs in Bangladesh as a result of its physiographic situation. Financial security is provided by house insurance in the event of natural catastrophe damage. Bangladesh suffers from river erosion every year, which costs a loss of $250 million. Due to its physiographic position, Bangladesh sees frequent occurrences of it. Physiographic location should be considered while implementing strategies and policies. The danger should be significantly decreased if we all work together to improve nature and are well-prepared for natural disasters.